The thyroids are two important glands located in the anterior part of the neck, under the larynx responsible to secrete the hormones that control the metabolism of the body. The hormones that are produce by the Thyroxine (T4) or Triiodothyronin(T3).
The secretion of those glands are controlled by the pituitary gland, or hypophysis and the hypothalamus that are based in the brain.
Any problem with the thyroid glands can be caused either to the defects of the own gland or the ones related to the hypophysis or hypothalamus.
The most common affection of the thyroid glands is the Hypothyroidism. The Hypothyroidism is characterized by the under activity in the production of enough hormones to keep the normal body function.
The Hypothyroidism can cause the dysfunction of the normal body activity causing mentally and physically tiredness. The symptoms can be light or severe or the most dangerous called Myxedema, when the body falls in a coma related to the dysfunction of the metabolism in the body.
Other causes of Hypothyroidism are genetics, surgical remotion of the thyroid gland, inflammation of the thyroid glands.
When the body start to work slowly due the low levels of the hormones T4 and T3, people feel more cold and feel fatigue very easily. The skin becomes drier than before and people forget things, depression starts and some individuals can have problems at the moment to defecate (hard stool, soft stool).
To know if an individual has this deficiency, is through a Blood Test: Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) and measures the amount of T3, T4 and THS and combine the results to give a diagnosis of Hypothyroidism, Hyperthyroidism or normality in the levels of the hormones.
This disease do not have a cure. But there are many ways to treat it as the use is hormones to complement the hormone levels that the body needs to work efficiently without suffering of the symptoms, through hormone replacement therapies.